ICAO is a special agency of “United Nation” formed in 1944 by “Chicago Convention” to develop the air traffic around the world and promote safety. ICAO set regulations to achieve this purpose. ICAO also provides designator codes for the aircrafts.

Headquarter of ICAO is placed in Montreal/Canada and is funded and directed by 193 national countries. Government of each country is a member of ICAO and membership fee should be paid.

There are civil and government aircrafts in the world.

Civil aircrafts are domestic or foreign aircraft used for commercial purpose, or even government-owned aircraft delivered by government to a lessee for commercial purpose use.  Government aircrafts are owned or operated by the government or agency of the government.

ICAO controls the traffic of civil aircrafts.


Air Traffic Control

The primary responsibility of air traffic controllers is the separation of aircraft. They control traffic in and around airports and in the terminal and enroute airspace in between. Controllers speak directly with pilots, notifying them of traffic or weather in their vicinity. Pilots depend on the instructions they receive from air traffic control to safely and efficiently travel from their origins to their destinations.

The air traffic controller is responsible for the level that the aircraft fly on air and consider sufficient space among the aircrafts flying. The aircrafts are also equipped with a system which alerts when the aircraft may face an obstacle in front or any other aircraft is too close to it. This system Reduce Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) of aircrafts who prefers to fly between 29000 ft and 41,000 ft, to save extra fuel consumption.


Air Freedom Rights

The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country’s to enter and land in another country’s airspace. They were formulated as a result of disagreements over the extent of aviation liberalization in the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944, known as the Chicago Convention.